The physical and chemical properties of magnesium oxide are as follows:

Physical properties:

Appearance: At room temperature, magnesium oxide is a white or grayish-white powder, with a light and loose volume and a dense and compact weight.

Odor and taste: Odorless, tasteless, non-toxic.

Density: Density is 3.58g/cm³ (25°C).

Melting and boiling points: Melting point is 2852°C, boiling point is 3600°C.

Solubility: Magnesium oxide is insoluble in pure water and organic solvents, but its solubility in water increases in the presence of carbon dioxide. It dissolves in acids and ammonium salt solutions but is insoluble in alcohol.

Chemical properties:

Alkaline oxide: Magnesium oxide is an alkaline oxide with the typical properties of alkaline oxides, belonging to cementitious materials.

Stability: Exposed to air, it readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide, gradually becoming basic magnesium carbonate. Light magnesium oxide reacts faster than heavy magnesium oxide. It combines with water under certain conditions to form magnesium hydroxide, exhibiting a weak alkaline reaction, with a pH of 10.3 for saturated aqueous solutions.

Electrolyte: Magnesium oxide contains ionic bonds and conducts electricity in the molten state, making it an electrolyte.

In summary, magnesium oxide is a typical alkaline earth metal oxide with a range of unique physical and chemical properties, making it widely used in various industrial applications.